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Isoniazid mediates the CYP2B6*6 genotype-dependent interaction between efavirenz and antituberculosis drug therapy through mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2A6

Abstract:

Efavirenz is commonly used to treat patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Previous clinical studies have observed paradoxically elevated efavirenz plasma concentrations in patients with the CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (but not the CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype) during coadministration with the commonly used four-drug antituberculosis therapy. This study sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying this genotype-dependent drug-drug interaction. In vitro studies were conducted to determine whether one or more of the antituberculosis drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, or ethambutol) potently inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by CYP2B6 or efavirenz 7-hydroxylation by CYP2A6, the main mechanisms of efavirenz clearance. Time- and concentration-dependent kinetics of inhibition by the antituberculosis drugs were determined using genotyped human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP2A6, CYP2B6.1, and CYP2B6.6 enzymes. Although none of the antituberculosis drugs evaluated at up to 10 times clinical plasma concentrations were found to inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by HLMs, both rifampin (apparent inhibition constant [Ki] = 368 μM) and pyrazinamide (Ki = 637 μM) showed relatively weak inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. Importantly, isoniazid demonstrated potent time-dependent inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation in both HLMs (inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal inactivation [KI] = 30 μM; maximal rate constant of inactivation [kinact] = 0.023 min(-1)) and recombinant CYP2A6 (KI = 15 μM; kinact = 0.024 min(-1)) and also formed a metabolite intermediate complex consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. Selective inhibition of the CYP2B6.6 allozyme could not be demonstrated for any of the antituberculosis drugs using either recombinant enzymes or CYP2B6*6 genotype HLMs. In conclusion, the results of this study identify isoniazid as the most likely perpetrator of this clinically important drug-drug interaction through mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2A6.

24820076

Projects: A3.4: Linking signalling to metabolic functions, B5: Cell-cell communication influences detoxifying functions in hepatocytes, G: Clinical translation

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 58(7): 4145-52
12th May 2014

Michael H Court, Fawziah E Almutairi, David J Greenblatt, Suwagmani Hazarika, Hongyan Sheng, Kathrin Klein, Ulrich M Zanger, Joanne Bourgea, Christopher J Patten, Awewura Kwara

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[Kathrin Klein] [Ulrich Zanger]

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Views: 1313
  • Created: 8th Dec 2014 at 09:49

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