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Serum acute phase reactants hallmark healthy individuals at risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury

Abstract:

Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic. However, its use is associated with drug induced liver injury (DILI). It is a prominent cause of acute liver failure, with APAP hepatotoxicity far exceeding other causes of acute liver failure in the United States. In order to improve its safe use this study aimed to identify individuals at risk for DILI prior to drug treatment by searching for non-genetic serum markers in healthy subjects susceptible to APAP-induced liver injury (AILI).Methods: Healthy volunteers (n = 36) received either placebo or acetaminophen at the maximum daily dose of 4 g for 7 days. Blood samples were taken prior to and after APAP treatment. Serum proteomic profiling was done by 2D SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the proteins C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and hemopexin were studied by quantitative immunoassays.Results: One third of study subjects presented more than four-fold alanine transaminase activity to evidence liver injury, while serum proteomics informed on 20 proteins as significantly regulated. These function primarily in acute phase and immune response. Pre-treatment associations included C-reactive protein, haptoglobin isoforms and retinol binding protein being up to six-fold higher in AILI susceptible individuals, whereas alpha1-antitrypsin, serum amyloid A, kininogen and transtyretin were regulated by nearly five-fold in AILI responders. When compared with published findings for steatohepatitis and cases of hepatocellular, cholestatic and mixed DILI, 10 proteins were identified as uniquely associated with risk for AILI, including plasminogen. Notably, this zymogen facilitates macrophage chemotactic migration and inflammatory response as reported for plasminogen-deficient mice shown to be resistant to APAP hepatotoxicity. Finally, analysis of a publically available database of gene expression profiles of cultures of human hepatocytes treated with drugs labeled as no- (n = 8), low- (n = 45) or most-DILI-concern (n = 39) confirmed regulation of the identified biomarkers to demonstrate utility in predicting risk for liver injury.Conclusions: The significant regulation of acute phase reactants points to an important link between AILI and the immune system. Monitoring of serum acute phase reactants prior to drug treatment may contribute to prevention and management of AILI, and may also be of utility for other drugs with known liver liabilities.

24070255

Projects: A1.2: Detoxification in hepatocytes challenged by steatotic conditions, CTU Proteomics

Genome Med
Genome Med 5(9): 86
27th Sep 2013

Jürgen Borlak, Bijon Chatterji, Kishor B Londhe, Paul B Watkins

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[Jürgen Borlak]

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Liver and Organism
Views: 1843
  • Created: 22nd Oct 2013 at 11:09
  • Last updated: 24th Oct 2013 at 16:14

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